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Young Ninja Group (ages 3-5)

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Ruben Lavrentiev
Ruben Lavrentiev

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This table of file signatures (aka "magic numbers") is a continuing work-in-progress. I had found little information on this in a single place, with the exception of the table in Forensic Computing: A Practitioner's Guide by T. Sammes & B. Jenkinson (Springer, 2000); that was my inspiration to start this list in 2002. See also Wikipedia's List of file signatures. Comments, additions, and queries can be sent to Gary Kessler at

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This list is not exhaustive although I add new files as I find them or someone contributes signatures. Interpret the table as a one-way function: the magic number generally indicates the file type whereas the file type does not always have the given magic number. If you want to know to what a particular file extension refers, check out some of these sites:

My software utility page contains a custom signature file based upon this list, for use with FTK, Scalpel, Simple Carver, Simple Carver Lite, and TrID. There is also a raw CSV file and JSON file of signatures.

Tim Coakley's site, with Filesig Manager and Simple Carver. Also, see Tim's SQLite Database Catalog page, "a repository of information used to identify specific SQLite databases and properties for research purposes."

The National Archives' PRONOM site provides on-line information about data file formats and their supporting software products, as well as their multi-platform DROID (Digital Record Object Identification) software.

I would like to give particular thanks to Danny Mares of Mares and Company, author of the MaresWare Suite (primarily for the "subheaders" for many of the file types here), and the people at X-Ways Forensics for their permission to incorporate their lists of file signatures.

Finally, Dr. Nicole Beebe from The University of Texas at San Antonio posted samples of more than 32 file types at the Digital Corpora, which I used for verification and additional signatures. These files were used to develop the Sceadan File Type Classifier. The file samples can be downloaded from the Digital Corpora website.

All information on this page 2002-document.write(new Date().getFullYear()), Gary C. Kessler. Permission to use the material here is extended to any of this page's visitors, as long as appropriate attribution is provided and the information is not altered in any way without express written permission of the author.

The EC Number is the numerical identifier for substances in the EC Inventory. The EC Inventory is a combination of three independent European lists of substances from the previous EU chemicals regulatory frameworks (EINECS, ELINCS and the NLP-list). More information about the EC Inventory can be found here.

The CAS number is the substance numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service, a division of the American Chemical Society, to substances registered in the CAS registry database. A substance identified primarily by an EC or list number may be linked with more than one CAS number, or with CAS numbers that have been deleted. More information about CAS and the CAS registry can be found here.

This section is based on three sources for information (harmonised classification and labelling (CLH), REACH registrations and CLP notifications). The source of the information is mentioned in the introductory sentence of the hazard statements. When information is available in all sources, the first two are displayed as a priority.

The purpose of the information provided under this section is to highlight the substance hazardousness in a readable format. It does not represent a new labelling, classification or hazard statement, neither reflect other factors that affect the susceptibility of the effects described, such as duration of exposure or substance concentration (e.g. in case of consumer and professional uses). Other relevant information includes the following:

If available, additional information on classification and labelling (C&L) is derived from REACH registration dossiers submitted by industry. This information has not been reviewed or verified by ECHA, and may change without prior notice. REACH registration dossiers have greater data requirements (such as supporting studies) than do notifications under CLP.

If no EU harmonised classification and labelling exists and the substance was not registered under REACH, information derived from classification and labelling (C&L) notifications to ECHA under CLP Regulation is displayed under this section. These notifications can be provided by manufacturers, importers and downstream users. ECHA maintains the C&L Inventory, but does not review or verify the accuracy of the information.

This section provides an overview of the calculated volume at which the substance is manufactured or imported to the European Economic Area (EU28 + Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Additionally, if available, information on the use of the substance and how consumers and workers are likely to be exposed to it can also be displayed here.

The use information is displayed per substance life cycle stage (consumer use, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites or in manufacturing). The information is aggregated from the data coming from REACH substance registrations provided by industry.

Use descriptors are adapted from ECHA guidance to improve readability and may not correspond textually to descriptor codes described in Chapter R.12: Use Descriptor system of ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment.

The examples provided are generic examples and may not apply to the specific substance you are viewing. A substance may have its use restricted to certain articles or products and therefore not all the examples may apply to the specific substance. Furthermore, some substances can be found in an article, but with unlikely exposure (e.g. inside a watch) or with very low concentrations considered not to pose risks to human health or the environment.

ECHA has no public registered data indicating whether or in which chemical products the substance might be used. ECHA has no public registered data on the routes by which this substance is most likely to be released to the environment.

Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from:indoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. flooring, furniture, toys, construction materials, curtains, foot-wear, leather products, paper and cardboard products, electronic equipment),outdoor use in long-life materials with low release rate (e.g. metal, wooden and plastic construction and building materials) and indoor use in long-life materials with high release rate (e.g. release from fabrics, textiles during washing, removal of indoor paints). This substance can be found in products with material based on:leather (e.g. gloves, shoes, purses, furniture),paper (e.g. tissues, feminine hygiene products, nappies, books, magazines, wallpaper),paper used for articles with intense direct dermal (skin) contact during normal use such as printed articles (e.g. newspapers, books, magazines, printed photographs) and paper used for articles with intense direct dermal (skin) contact during normal use such as personal hygiene articles (e.g. nappies, feminine hygiene products, adult incontinence products, tissues, towels, toilet paper).

ECHA has no public registered data indicating whether or in which chemical products the substance might be used. ECHA has no public registered data on the types of manufacture using this substance. Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from:indoor use.

This substance is used in the following products:paper chemicals and dyes. Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use:formulation in materials and formulation of mixtures.

This substance is used in the following products:leather treatment products,paper chemicals and dyes,polymers and coating products. This substance is used for the manufacture of:pulp, paper and paper products,textile, leather or fur and chemicals. Release to the environment of this substance can occur from industrial use:in the production of articles,as an intermediate step in further manufacturing of another substance (use of intermediates),for thermoplastic manufacture and of substances in closed systems with minimal release.

The substance properties displayed in this section are derived from Harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) data, entries in the Candidate list of substances of very high concern for authorisation, the PBT assessment list, the ED assessment list, REACH registered dossier data and from notifications made under CLP. A prioritisation hierarchy means that data is taken from harmonised C&L data and regulatory lists first, then REACH registrations and finally from CLP notifications. By clicking on the "More details" button you can see the exact origin(s) of each Property of Concern.

Impurities or additives: When a specific critical property is calculated from industry data and where the majority of data submitters have indicated that the property relates to cases containing impurities and/or additives, then the respective critical property icon is modified with an asterisk (*).

Please note: Precautionary measures and guidance on safe use concern the use and handling of the specific substance as such, not of the presence of the substance in other articles or mixtures. The precautionary measures and guidance on safe use are as submitted to ECHA by registrants under the REACH Regulation. Information on precautionary measures and the safe use is submitted by the registrant of a substance and the registrant is solely responsible for its accuracy and completeness.

The InfoCard summarises the non-confidential data of a substance held in the databases of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). InfoCards are generated automatically based on the data available at the time of generation. 041b061a72


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