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Novice Karate Group (ages 8 & up)

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Ruben Lavrentiev
Ruben Lavrentiev

Almost Salinas



The Salinas area of central New Mexico is not as familiar to most people as other parts of the Southwest. In the past, however, its location made it a vibrant place of interaction between Plains and Pueblo peoples. This issue of Archaeology Southwest explores the themes of continuity, connectivity, conflict, and colonization in the Salinas province across almost eight centuries, beginning with the Pithouse period and ending with the Spanish Colonial period.




Almost Salinas



The Salinas area of central New Mexico is not as familiar to most people as other parts of the Southwest. In the past, however, its location made it a vibrant place of interaction between Plains and Pueblo peoples. This issue of Archaeology Southwest Magazine explores the themes of continuity, connectivity, conflict, and colonization in the Salinas province across almost eight centuries, beginning with the Pithouse period and ending with the Spanish Colonial period.


Offered on behalf of The Evergreen State College Foundation, this scholarship has been created to honor the life and work of Raquel Salinas. For almost 20 years, Raquel Salinas served as the First Peoples Support Programs Coordinator and was a pivotal person in tirelessly supporting students and communities of color at The Evergreen State College. As a first-generation college student, Latinx, and Evergreen double-alumna, she contributed much of her life to shaping campus-wide student support strategies and furthering campus dialogue around race and equity.To be eligible to receive the scholarship, a student must meet the following criteria:


The mild climate of the Salinas Valley, CA lends itself well to a diverse agricultural industry. However, the diversity of weeds, crops and insect and fungal vectors also provide favorable conditions for plant virus disease development. This paper considers the incidence and management of several plant viruses that have caused serious epidemics and been significant in the agricultural development of the Salinas Valley during the 20th century. Beet curly top virus (BCTV) almost destroyed the newly established sugarbeet industry soon after its establishment in the 1870s. A combination of resistant varieties, cultural management of beet crops to provide early plant emergence and development, and a highly coordinated beet leafhopper vector scouting and spray programme have achieved adequate control of BCTV. These programmes were first developed by the USDA and still operate. Lettuce mosaic virus was first recognized as causing a serious disease of lettuce crops in the 1930s. The virus is still a threat but it is controlled by a lettuce-free period in December and a seed certification programme that allows only seed lots with less than one infected seed in 30000 to be grown. 'Virus Yellows' is a term used to describe a complex of yellows inducing viruses which affect mainly sugarbeet and lettuce. These viruses include Beet yellows virus and Beet western yellows virus. During the 1950s, the complex caused significant yield losses to susceptible crops in the Salinas Valley. A beet-free period was introduced and is still used for control. The fungus-borne rhizomania disease of sugarbeet caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus was first detected in Salinas Valley in 1983. Assumed to have been introduced from Europe, this virus has now become widespread in California wherever beets are grown and crop losses can be as high as 100%. Movement of infested soil and beets accounts for its spread throughout the beet-growing regions of the United States. Control of rhizomania involves several cultural practices, but the use of resistant varieties is the most effective and is necessary where soils are infested. Rhizomania-resistant varieties are now available that perform almost as well as the non-resistant varieties under non-rhizomania conditions. Another soil-borne disease termed lettuce dieback, caused by a tomato bushy stunt-like tombusvirus, has become economically limiting to romaine and leaf lettuce varieties. The virus has no known vector and it seems to be moved through infested soil and water. Heavy rains in the past 4 years have caused flooding of the Salinas River and lettuce fields along the river have been affected severely by dieback. Studies are now in progress to characterize this new virus and identify sources of resistance. Agriculture in the Salinas Valley continues to grow and diversify, driven by demands for 'clean', high quality food by the American public and for export. The major aspects of plant virus control, including crop-free periods, breeding for resistance, elimination of inoculum sources, and vector control will continue to be vital to this expansion. Undoubtedly, the advances in crop production through genetic manipulation and advances in pest management through biological control will eventually become an important part of agricultural improvement.


Ironically, the beginning of twenty-first century almost brought an end to the public library in Salinas when a serious budget crisis prompted the city council to plan closure of the entire system early in 2005. Once again the people, businesses, and organizations of Salinas and beyond came forward to affirm the value of their public library. In about three months, the Rally Salinas! campaign raised enough money to keep the system open 33 hours a week for one year. Then on November 8, 2005, the citizens of Salinas voted a sales tax to keep the library and other city services funded for the next ten years. This tax was extended in 2016 through a subsequent tax Measure E which ensures ongoing funding.


"Messi is the best player in the world, but Barcelona clearly need signings and the pot is almost empty. There's not a penny left; they have a serious economic problem and Messi earns almost 100 million [euros]," Salinas told Betsfy.


Salinas Valley grows almost half of the nation's lettuce (including head, leaf and romaine) and a third of its spinach, thus its moniker as America's Salad Bowl. It also produces half the nation's broccoli and cauliflower and over 80% of its artichokes.


Sergeant Mark Babione was hired by the Salinas Police Department on September 15, 1980. He worked as a patrol officer 8 years before becoming a Motor Officer assigned to the Traffic Unit of the Salinas Police Department 1988. Mark was a Motor Officer for 5 years. During that time he was an acting supervisor where he planned and supervised special events; Air Show, Rodeo, D.U.I. check points. Mark was instrumental in creating and implementing tri-county law enforcement motorcycle training. Mark formulated the departments Commercial Vehicle Enforcement Program. He was an instructor for the First Offender D.U.I. Program and a Traffic Safety Instructor at Hartnell College. Mark was a Hostage Negotiation Team Negotiator and a member of the Salinas Police Department Bike Patrol Unit for almost 20 years.


On our first few stops, the weather was cold, cloudy, and humid and there was a dense layer of fog/clouds surrounding the mountains that we could see. The views we had of the mountains there were beautiful and I liked how due to the altitude, they actually seemed to reach the clouds. As we continued to drive to the other side of the mountains, the sky was suddenly blue and the sun shone. It almost felt like we had driven to a different country completely.


For the remainder of the drive our views remained the same, but they were still unbelievable. When we made it to the Salt flats in Salinas, the views were almost more breathtaking. The ground looked like it was covered in snow but it was actually a thick layer of salt left behind by the ocean millions of years ago. I think this was my favorite stop on the tour because I loved the contrast the white salt brought to the mountain views in the background. Overall, this was by far my favorite day of the trip to Buenos Aires. I love the culture of this country, but the views we saw on the bus tour are hard to beat.


President Salinas promised about 280 local Mayan Indian and campesino or peasant organizations a peaceful resolution to the armed uprising that has paralyzed the impoverished coffee-producing state for almost a month. Salinas, in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas' capital, pledged to fulfill a series of social demands ranging from emergency provisions for war-zone refugees, judicial reforms, and a coffee-growers fund to ``a dialogue with each one of you'' over land disputes between ranchers and poor peasant farmers. ``We want peace, but not by returning to the situation before. We want peace, but by entering a new stage,'' he said.


Salinas got his start by taking over his family's discount retailer, Grupo Elektra, in 1987. (It had 59 stores then, 1,600 now.) In 1993 he launched his television network, TV Azteca, to steal viewers from the country's leading channel, Televisa; he uses TV Azteca to air Elektra ads. Then, in 1999, he introduced a low-cost mobile carrier, Unefon, to undercut the dominant player, América Móvil, controlled by Carlos Slim Helú, who now rivals Bill Gates as the world's richest person. Now Salinas is pushing hard into banking. His Elektra chain was the first retailer to enter the business when it opened Banco Azteca in 2002. Now it has more than 900 minibranches in Elektra stores and almost 700 at other outlets. Last year Azteca took in $1.1 billion from 7 million low-income clients--a quarter of Mexico's 28 million "unbanked" people. 041b061a72


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