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Novice Karate Group (ages 8 & up)

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Leonardo Watson
Leonardo Watson

HD Online Player (comprehensive.meta.analysis.2.2.064.)


The current study may shed light on one of the behavioral mechanisms underlying IGD, namely the discounting of probabilistic gains and losses45. Despite previous inconsistent findings about the differences in the rate of PD between subjects with IGD and normal controls, our study showed that the former had a lower PD rate than that in the latter with a moderate effect size, suggesting that subjects with IGD tended to underestimate the consequences of risky behaviors compared to the tendency in healthy controls. Previous studies found that PD rate is associated with risk taking and gamblers who had elevated risk propensity also had lower PD rates than those in controls16,46. Therefore, it is possible that the IGD group had impaired prospective thinking which involved risk evaluation to render them vulnerable to easy addiction to online games without considering the potential negative consequences. The finding is supported by that of previous studies investigating the underlying neural mechanism among individuals with IGD, which demonstrated impaired functional connectivity in brain regions involving the reward circuits24, less engagement in the executive control network29 and less neural response in certain brain regions related to addictive behaviors such as parahippocampal gyrus, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the medial frontal gyrus39 compared to those in normal subjects.




HD Online Player (comprehensive.meta.analysis.2.2.064.)


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